引用本文:
张光贵, 张屹. 洞庭湖区城市饮用水源地水环境健康风险评价[J]. 环境化学, 2017, 36(8): 1812-1820
ZHANG Guanggui, ZHANG Yi. Water environmental health risk assessment in urban drinking water sources in Dongting Lake region[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2017, 36(8): 1812-1820

洞庭湖区城市饮用水源地水环境健康风险评价
张光贵, 张屹
湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 岳阳, 414000
摘要:
为了解洞庭湖区城市饮用水源地水环境健康风险,根据2014年30个县级以上城市饮用水源地水质监测数据,采用美国环境保护署(US EPA)推荐的水环境健康风险评价模型,对洞庭湖区城市饮用水源地水环境健康风险进行了评价.结果表明,由毒性物质所致总健康风险在8.77×10-10-7.42×10-5 a-1之间,平均为1.07×10-5 a-1,低于国际辐射防护委员会(ICRP)推荐的最大可接受风险水平5×10-5 a-1,但高于部分机构推荐的最大可接受风险水平1×10-6 a-1,总体属中等风险;总健康风险的大小顺序为地下水型 > 河流型 > 水库型,澧水 > 松澧洪道 > 资水 > 湘江 > 沅江 > 汨罗江 > 长江 > 华容河,下游>上游,常德市 > 益阳市 > 岳阳市 > 望城区,中部 > 东部 > 西部;毒性物质总健康风险主要来自化学致癌物As,因此,As应作为水环境健康风险决策管理的重点;优先选取水库和河流作为城市饮用水源是降低洞庭湖区城市饮用水源地水环境健康风险的重要途径,加强上游城市污染治理和城市交界断面水质考核,对保障下游城市饮用水源地水质安全具有关键性作用.
关键词:        化学致癌物    饮用水    健康风险评价    洞庭湖区   
Water environmental health risk assessment in urban drinking water sources in Dongting Lake region
ZHANG Guanggui, ZHANG Yi
Dongting Lake Eco-Environmental Monitoring Center of Hunan Province, Yueyang, 414000, China
Abstract:
In order to understand the water environmental health risk in urban drinking water sources in Dongting Lake region, based on the water quality monitoring data of 30 urban drinking water sources in 2014,the potential health risk assessment was conducted using the water environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EPA. The results showed that the total health risk value caused by toxic substances ranged from 8.77×10-10 a-1 to 7.42×10-5 a-1, with an average value of 1.07×10-5 a-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level of 5×10-5 a-1 recommended by ICRP, but higher than the maximum acceptable level of 1×10-6 a-1 recommended by other agencies, indicating that the overall risk level was medium. The ranking of total health risk value was underground water > river > reservoir, Lishui River > Songli Spillway > Zhishui River > Xiangjiang River > Yuanjiang River > Miluo River > Yangtze River > Huarong River, downstream>upstream, Changde City > Yiyang City > Yueyang City > Wangcheng District, Central region > Eastern region > Western region. The total health risk of toxic substances was mainly caused by chemical carcinogen As. Therefore more attention should be paid to As in risk decision-making management. Priority selection of reservoirs and rivers as urban drinking water sources is an important way for reducing water environmental health risk in urban drinking water sources in Dongting Lake region. And strengthening the upstream urban pollution treatment and urban border section water quality assessment has a crucial role in ensuring the water quality safety of downstream urban drinking water sources.
Key words:    As    chemical carcinogen    drinking water    health risk assessment    Dongting Lake region   
收稿日期: 2016-12-28
基金项目: 2015年湖南省环境保护厅重点专项(洞庭湖区环境污染现状调查)资助.
张光贵,Tel:15973002798,E-mail:zhangguanggui64@163.com
相关功能
PDF(3317KB) Free
打印本文
加入收藏夹
把本文推荐给朋友
作者相关文章
张光贵  在本刊中的所有文章
张屹  在本刊中的所有文章

参考文献:
[1] 陈文花, 曾雨. 福建省城市生活饮用水源地水质状况及保护措施[J]. 环境科学与管理, 2010, 35(10):5-8. CHEN W H, ZENG Y. Water quality and protection measures of city drinking water sources in Fujian[J]. Environmental Science and Management, 2010, 35(10):5-8(in Chinese).
[2] 王硕, 朱华平, 柴志妮, 等. 国际饮用水安全评价[J]. 食品研究与开发, 2009, 30(11):182-185. WANG S, ZHU H P, CHAI Z N, et al. Safety assessment of the international drinking-water[J]. Food Research and Development, 2009, 30(11):182-185(in Chinese).
[3] 孙超, 陈振楼, 张翠, 等. 上海市主要饮用水源地水重金属健康风险初步评价[J]. 环境科学研究, 2009, 22(1):60-65. SUN C, CHEN Z L, ZHANG C, et al. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking water sources in Shanghai, China[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2009, 22(1):60-65(in Chinese).
[4] 符刚, 曾强, 赵亮, 等. 基于GIS的天津市饮用水水质健康风险评价[J]. 环境科学, 2015, 36(12):4453-4560. FU G, ZENG Q, ZHAO L, et al. Health risk assessment of drinking water quality in Tianjin based on GIS[J]. Environmental Science, 2015, 36(12):4453-4560(in Chinese).
[5] 李祥平, 齐剑英, 陈永亨, 等. 广州市主要饮用水源中重金属健康风险的初步评价[J]. 环境科学学报, 2011, 31(3):547-553. LI X P, QI J Y, CHEN Y H, et al. Preliminary health risk assessment of heavy metals in the main drinking water sources of Guangzhou[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiac, 2011, 31(3):547-553(in Chinese).
[6] 周国宏, 彭朝琼, 余淑苑, 等. 深圳市饮用水源水中重金属污染物健康风险评价[J]. 环境与健康杂志, 2011, 28(1):50-52. ZHOU G H, PENG Z Q, YU S Y, et al. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking water sources in Shengzhen, Guangdong[J]. Journal of Environment and Health, 2011, 28(1):50-52(in Chinese).
[7] 梁丽华, 王新科, 郑现明, 等. 西安市黑河水源地水环境健康风险评价[J]. 干旱区资源与环境, 2014, 28(10):140-144. LIANG L H, WANG X K, ZHENG X M, et al. Environmental health risk assessment on drinking water source of Heihe River for Xi'an[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 2014, 28(10):140-144(in Chinese).
[8] 邹滨, 曾永年, BENJAMIN F Z, 等. 城市水环境健康风险评价[J]. 地理与地理信息科学, 2009, 25(2):94-98. ZHOU B, ZENG Y N, BENJAMIN F Z, et al. Spatial and temporal health risk assessment of water environment in urban area[J]. Geography and Geo-Information Science, 2009, 25(2):94-98(in Chinese).
[9] 黄奕龙, 王仰麟, 谭启宇, 等. 城市饮用水源地水环境健康风险评价及风险管理[J]. 地学前缘, 2006, 13(3):162-167. HUANG Y L, WANG Y L, TAN Q Y, et al. Environmental health risk assessment and management for urban water supply sources[J]. Earth Science Frontiers, 2006, 13(3):162-167(in Chinese).
[10] 杨阳, 许策, 程高峰, 等.保定市区生活饮用水中重金属污染物健康风险初步评价[J]. 环境化学, 2014, 33(2):292-297. YANG Y, XU C, CHENG G F, et al. Preliminary health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking waters in Baoding City[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2014, 33(2):292-297(in Chinese).
[11] 谢许情, 赖肖, 章英. 南昌市城市饮用水水质健康风险评价[J]. 环境卫生学杂志, 2016, 6(1):51-55, 59. XIE X Q, LAI X, ZHANG Y. Health risk assessment of drinking water supply in Nanchang[J]. Journal of Environmental Hygiene, 2016, 6(1):51-55, 59(in Chinese).
[12] 湖南省统计局. 湖南统计年鉴2015[M]. 北京:中国统计出版社, 2015. Statistical Bureau of Hunan Province. Hunan statistical yearbook 2015[M]. Beijing:China Statistics Press, 2015(in Chinese).
[13] US EPA. Exposure factors handbook:2009 update[S]. EPA/600/R-09/052A, Washington DC, 2009.
[14] 倪彬, 王洪波, 李旭东, 等. 湖泊饮用水源地水环境健康风险评价[J].环境科学研究, 2010, 23(1):74-79. NI B, WANG H B, LI X D, et al. Water environmental health risk assessment in lake sources of drinking water[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2010, 23(1):74-79(in Chinese).
[15] 中华人民共和国卫生部, 中国国家标准化管理委员会.生活饮用水卫生标准(GB 5749-2006)[S]. 北京:中国标准出版社, 2007. Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China. Standards for drinking water quality (GB 5749-2006)[S]. Beijing:China Standard Press, 2007(in Chinese).
[16] 张光贵. 洞庭湖水环境健康风险评价[J]. 湿地科学与管理, 2013, 9(4):26-29. ZHANG G G. Health risk assessment of the water environment of Dongting Lake[J]. Wetland Science & management, 2013, 9(4):26-29(in Chinese).
[17] 张光贵, 黄博. 湖南洞庭湖水系重金属健康风险评价[J]. 水资源保护, 2014, 30(1):14-17, 47. ZHANG G G, HUANG B. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in Dongting Lake water system in Hunan Province, China[J]. Water Resources Protection, 2014, 30(1):14-17, 47(in Chinese).
[18] 鲁滔, 张光贵. 长江岳阳段水环境健康风险评价[J]. 环保科技, 2014, 20(1):22-25. LU T, ZHANG G G. Water environmental health risk assessment for the Yueyang reach of Yangtze River[J]. Environmental Protection and Technology, 2014, 20(1):22-25(in Chinese).
[19] 张光贵. 岳阳市地下水污染健康风险评价[J]. 水资源与水工程学报, 2013, 24(6):206-210. ZHANG G G. Health risk assessment of groundwater pollution in Yueyang[J]. Journal of Water Resources & Water Engineering, 2013, 24(6):206-210(in Chinese).
[20] 陈宇辉, 陶涛. 洞庭湖区地下水除铁除锰工艺研究[J]. 河南科学, 2005, 23(3):422-425. CHEN Y H, TAO T. Study on treatment of removing iron and manganese from groundwater in Dongting Lake zone[J]. Henan Science, 2005, 23(3):422-425(in Chinese).
[21] 刘长明, 皮建高, 肖江. 洞庭湖区浅层地下水环境质量模糊综合评价[J]. 南水北调与水利科技, 2010, 8(6):59-62. LIU C M, PI J G, XIAO J. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on environmental quality of shallow groundwater in the Dongting Lake area[J]. South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science & Technology, 2010, 8(6):59-62(in Chinese).
[22] 郝汉舟, 陈同斌,吴基良,等. 武汉市儿童多途径铅暴露风险评估[J]. 环境科学, 2012, 33(6):2075-2082. HAO H Z, CHEN T B, WU J L, et al. Risk assessment of lead exposure from different intake pathways for children in Wuhan City[J]. Environmental Science, 2012, 33(6):2075-2082(in Chinese).
[23] 郑孝俊, 梁静静. 城市饮用水放射性污染风险评估[J]. 水利水电快报, 2010, 31(8):9-13. ZHENG X J, LIANG J J. Risk assessment of radioactivity pollution in urban drinking water[J]. Express Water Resources & Hydropower Information, 2010, 31(8):9-13(in Chinese).
[24] 高继军, 张力平, 黄圣彪, 等. 北京市饮用水源水重金属污染物健康风险的初步评价[J]. 环境科学, 2004, 25(2):47-50. GAO J J, ZHANG L P, HUANG S B, et al. Preliminary health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking waters in Beijing[J]. Environmental Science, 2004, 25(2):47-50(in Chinese).
[25] 郑浩, 于洋, 丁震, 等. 江苏省饮用水重金属污染物健康风险评价[J]. 江苏预防医学, 2012, 23(4):5-7. ZHENG H, YU Y, DING Z, et al. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking water in Jiangsu Province[J]. Jiangsu Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2012, 23(4):5-7(in Chinese).
[26] 王若师, 许秋瑾, 张娴, 等. 东江流域典型乡镇饮用水源地重金属污染健康风险评价[J]. 环境科学, 2012, 33(9):3083-3088. WANG R S, XU Q J, ZHANG X, et al. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in typical township water sources in Dongjiang River Basin[J]. Environmental Science, 2012, 33(9):3083-3088(in Chinese).
[27] THOMAS M B, AMY C S, AARON B, et al. Ecological and human health risk assessment[J]. Water Environment Research, 2009, 81(10):2170-2210.
[28] EMRAH C. Health risk assessment for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trihalomethanes in drinking water of Cankiri, Turkey[J]. E-Journal of Chemistry, 2012, 9(4):1976-1991.
[29] 秦雯雯,杨忠芳,侯青叶,等. 江西省鄱阳湖地区饮用水健康风险评价[J]. 现代地质, 2011, 25(1):182-188. QIN W W, YANG Z F, HOU Q Y, et al. Health risk assessment of drinking water in Poyang Lake region in Jiangxi Province[J]. Geoscience, 2011, 25(1):182-188(in Chinese).
相关文献:
1.王睿, 张磊, 刘忠慧, 赵亮, 冯宝佳, 符刚, 崔玉山.天津市农村饮用水水质健康风险初评[J]. 环境化学, 2015,34(10): 1961-1963
2.杨阳, 许策, 程高峰, 朱琳, 刘文菊, 赵全利.保定市区生活饮用水中重金属污染物健康风险初步评价[J]. 环境化学, 2014,33(2): 292-297
3.王超, 彭涛, 吕怡兵, 滕恩江, 邢冠华.江南某城市饮用水及其水源水中微囊藻毒素调查及初步健康风险评价[J]. 环境化学, 2014,33(7): 1237-1238
4.朱晓龙, 刘妍, 甘国娟, 丁咸庆, 彭佩钦, 廖柏寒.湘中某工矿区土壤及作物砷污染特征及其健康风险评价[J]. 环境化学, 2014,32(9): 1462-1468