引用本文:
周潇, 卢新卫, 蔡月, 白清华, 欧延升. 西安市不同功能区可悬浮灰尘中重金属含量、形态及污染评价[J]. 环境化学, 2018, 37(9): 1921-1927
ZHOU Xiao, LU Xinwei, CAI Yue, BAI Qinghua, OU Yansheng. Levels, speciation and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the suspended dusts from different functional areas of Xi'an City[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2018, 37(9): 1921-1927

西安市不同功能区可悬浮灰尘中重金属含量、形态及污染评价
周潇1, 卢新卫1,2, 蔡月1, 白清华1, 欧延升1
1. 陕西师范大学地理科学与旅游学院, 西安, 710119;
2. 陕西师范大学, 地理学国家级实验教学示范中心, 西安, 710119
摘要:
首先利用原子吸收分光光度计测定西安市住宅区、文教区、交通区和公共服务区可悬浮灰尘样品中重金属Ni、Cu、Pb、Zn、Mn和Cr的含量,然后采用修正的BCR连续提取技术分析样品中重金属的赋存形态,最后利用单因子及内梅罗综合污染指数法评估重金属的污染水平.结果表明,西安市可悬浮灰尘中Ni(40.4 μg·g-1)、Cu(44.0 μg·g-1)、Pb(55.4 μg·g-1)和Zn(128.8 μg·g-1)的平均含量超出了陕西省土壤元素背景值,而Mn(187.4 μg·g-1)和Cr(22.3 μg·g-1)的平均含量低于该背景值.重金属在不同功能区呈现不同的变化特征:Ni、Cu和Cr在4个功能区含量差异不明显;Pb在交通区含量最高,在公共服务区含量最低;Zn在住宅区含量最低,在其他3个功能区含量接近;Mn文教区含量略高于其他3个功能区.不同功能区可悬浮灰尘中Cr主要以残余态存在,Cu、Zn和Mn主要以可还原态存在,Ni主要以可氧化态和可还原态存在,Pb主要以乙酸可提取态和可还原态存在.约有70%以上的Zn、Mn、Pb、Cu和Ni可以发生迁移,易被生物利用.单因子污染评价表明,4个功能区可悬浮灰尘样品中Ni、Cu、Pb和Zn呈现不同程度的污染,Mn和Cr处于清洁.内梅罗综合污染评价表明,不同功能区可悬浮灰尘重金属综合污染水平不同,住宅区和公共服务区处于轻污染水平,文教区和交通区处于中污染水平.
关键词:    城市功能区    可悬浮灰尘    重金属    形态    内梅罗综合污染指数    西安   
Levels, speciation and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the suspended dusts from different functional areas of Xi'an City
ZHOU Xiao1, LU Xinwei1,2, CAI Yue1, BAI Qinghua1, OU Yansheng1
1. School Geography of and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710119, China;
2. National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Geography, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710119, China
Abstract:
Atomic adsorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr in suspended dust samples from different functional areas such as residential area, cultural and educational area, traffic area and public service area of Xi'an City. Modified BCR sequential extraction procedure was then used to analyze the speciation of heavy metals. Finally, pollution levels of heavy metals in the dusts were assessed using the single pollution index and Nemerow complex pollution index. The mean concentrations of Ni (40.4 μg·g-1), Cu (44.0 μg·g-1), Pb (55.4 μg·g-1) and Zn (128.8 μg·g-1) in the samples exceeded their corresponding background values in Shaanxi, while the mean contents of Mn (187.4 μg·g-1) and Cr (22.3 μg·g-1) in the sample were lower than their background values. The contents of heavy metals in the suspended dusts from different functional areas were different. The concentrations of Ni, Cu and Cr in the four functional areas were similar. The content of Pb in the traffic area was the highest, while in public service area it was the lowest. Zn in the residential area was lower than in other three functional areas. The concentration of Mn in the cultural and educational area was slightly higher than in other three areas. The speciation analysis showed that Cr in the samples was dominated by the residual form. Cu, Zn and Mn mainly existed in the reducible form. Ni was rich in the oxidizable and reducible form. Pb was most weak-acid-soluble and reducible. More than 70% of Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu and Ni could be transformed and bioavailable. The single pollution index assessment results showed that Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn from the four function areas were all at different pollution levels, while Mn and Cr were unpolluted. Nemerow complex pollution index assessment results showed that the comprehensive pollution situations of heavy metals in the dusts from different functional areas were different. The dusts from residential area and public service area were at light pollution level, meanwhile, the dusts from cultural and educational area and traffic area were at middle pollution level.
Key words:    urban functional area    suspended dust    heavy metal    speciation    Nemerow Index    Xi'an   
收稿日期: 2017-11-06
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(41271510)资助.
卢新卫,Tel:029-85310525,E-mail:luxinwei@snnu.edu.cn
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