引用本文:
杨海君, 许云海, 刘亚宾, 金红玉, 毛友纯. 湘江流域衡阳水口山段水环境健康风险评估[J]. 环境化学, 2018, 37(9): 2060-2070
YANG Haijun, XU Yunhai, LIU Yabin, JIN Hongyu, MAO Youchun. Environmental health risk assessment of Shuikou Mountain Section of Hengyang in Xiangjiang River Basin[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2018, 37(9): 2060-2070

湘江流域衡阳水口山段水环境健康风险评估
杨海君1, 许云海1, 刘亚宾1, 金红玉1, 毛友纯2
1. 湖南农业大学植物保护学院, 长沙, 410128;
2. 湖南农业大学期刊社, 长沙, 410128
摘要:
湘江衡阳水口山段的水质状况对区域内、下游居民饮用水安全和湘江流域的污染治理具有重要意义,为了解治理后湘江衡阳水口山段的水环境状况,选取水口山段龙洲、陈家洲、康家溪入湘江口上游500 m及下游1000 m、3000 m沿江断面的水质监测数据,探讨了水体中污染物的分布特征,应用美国环保局(USEPA)推荐的暴露计算方法和健康风险评价模型,首次对水口山段水体中砷、镉、六价铬、镍、锌、铅、铜、氨氮、汞、氟化物等10种典型污染物的健康风险进行评价.结果表明,各断面水体中的Pb均值都超过Ⅲ类水标准,Hg均值都为0.0001 mg·L-1,均处于Ⅲ类水标准上限值,仅T3断面水体中的Cd均值超过Ⅲ类水标准,各断面水体中的其它污染物均值都低于Ⅲ类水标准;同一断面不同时期水体中各污染物含量存在差异,其中5月份监测的数据明显偏高;通过超标率发现As、Cd、Pb、Hg为5个断面水样中的主要污染物,水样中As、Cd、Pb、Hg超标的断面分别为1、2、5、5个;T1-T5断面水样中,化学致癌物Cd、As、Cr6+、Ni通过饮水途径引起的成人总致癌风险值分别为9.82×10-5、9.33×10-5、1.45×10-4、1.90×10-4、1.67×10-4,均超过了国际辐射防护委员会(ICRP)所推荐的最大可接受水平,且T3-T5断面水样化学致癌物健康风险明显偏大,T1-T5断面饮用水由非致癌物所产生的健康风险数量级为10-11-10-9,与重金属元素致癌风险相比,其所占个人总健康风险的比例不到10-3,研究区水环境健康风险主要由致癌重金属元素所产生.
关键词:    湘江流域    水口山段    水环境    致癌物质    健康风险   
Environmental health risk assessment of Shuikou Mountain Section of Hengyang in Xiangjiang River Basin
YANG Haijun1, XU Yunhai1, LIU Yabin1, JIN Hongyu1, MAO Youchun2
1. College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China;
2. Periodical Department of Hunau Agricultural University, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China
Abstract:
Water quality of Shuikou mountain section (Hengyang) in Xiangjiang River Basin is of great significance to the drinking water safety of the inhabitants in this region and downstream areas as well as the pollution control of the Xiangjiang River Basin. In order to gain information about the water environment of Shuikou mountain section (Hengyang) of Xiangjiang River Basin after restoration, the water quality monitoring data of Longzhou, Chenjiazhou and Kangjiaxi in Shuikou mountain section at 500 m upstream of the Xiangjiang River estuary and 1000 m and 3000 m downstream along the riverside section were selected. According to the exposure calculation method and the health risk assessment model recommended by USEPA, the distribution characteristics of pollutants in water were discussed. For the first time, the health risks of 10 typical carcinogenic pollutants such as arsenic, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, nickel, zinc, lead, copper, ammonia nitrogen, mercury, and fluoride in Shuikou mountain section were evaluated. The results indicated that the average Pb content in all sections exceeded the Grade Ⅲ water quality standard; Hg concentration was 0.0001 mg·L-1, which is close to the upper limit of water standard; Only the average Cd concentration of T3 section exceeded Grade Ⅲ; Other contaminants in the section were lower than the water standard of Class Ⅲ. It also showed that the concentrations of pollutants in the same section changed with time, and the concentrations in May were obviously higher As, Cd, Pb and Hg were found to be the major pollutants in the five sections with the numbers of 1, 2, 5, 5 respectively. The total carcinogenic risk of adults caused by chemical carcinogens Cd,As,Cr6+and Ni in T1-T5 water samples were 9.82×10-5、9.33×10-5、1.45×10-4、1.90×10-4、1.67×10-4,respectively,which all exceeded the maximum acceptable level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Furthermore, the health risks of chemical carcinogenesis in T3-T5 sections were obviously higher. The health risk of non-carcinogenic substances in T1-T5 sections was on the order of 10-11-10-9. Comparing with the carcinogenic risk of heavy metal elements, the proportion of their health risks is less than 10-3. The water environment health risk in the study area was mainly caused by carcinogenic heavy metal elements.
Key words:    Xiangjiang River Basin    Shuikou mountain section    water environment    carcinogen    health risk   
收稿日期: 2018-01-21
基金项目: 湖南省自然科学基金(2016JJ5015)资助.
毛友纯,Tel:0731-84617599,E-mail:1603451234@qq.com
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