引用本文:
雷杰妮, 庄僖, 任明忠, 石小霞, 余乐洹, 蔡宗苇, 张漫雯. 广州市教室室内外PM2.5的污染特征[J]. 环境化学, 2018, 37(10): 2181-2190
LEI Jieni, ZHUANG Xi, REN Mingzhong, SHI Xiaoxia, YU Lehuan, CAI Zongwei, ZHANG Manwen. Characteristic of Indoor and Outdoor PM2.5 Pollution in Classrooms in Guangzhou[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2018, 37(10): 2181-2190

广州市教室室内外PM2.5的污染特征
雷杰妮1, 庄僖2, 任明忠2, 石小霞2, 余乐洹4, 蔡宗苇1,3, 张漫雯2
1. 广东工业大学环境科学与工程学院, 广州, 510006;
2. 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州, 510655;
3. 香港浸会大学化学系, 环境与生物分析国家重点实验室, 香港, 999077;
4. 广东第二师范学院生物与食品工程学院, 广州, 510303
摘要:
本研究采用PM2.5连续在线监测仪对广州市不同典型地区4所学校共16间教室进行室内外PM2.5同时监测.结果表明,教室室内外PM2.5浓度水平分别为65±15 μg·m-3和75±24 μg·m-3,4所学校由于不同地理位置、外部环境以及室内卫生条件呈现出不同的PM2.5污染水平;受人为因素影响较大的学校白天的PM2.5浓度较高,受自然环境因素影响较大的学校则呈现白天低、夜晚高的趋势;通风方式和开关窗行为是影响室内外PM2.5相关关系的重要因素,夏季空调机械通风的教室能有效地降低外部PM2.5的渗透,开窗通风的教室室内PM2.5则主要受室外环境影响;同样关窗情况下,具有较好围护结构、气密性较好的教室更能有效避免室外PM2.5污染;当雾霾发生时,室内PM2.5浓度以及室内外一元线性相关系数r2也相应受到明显影响.通过了解不同区域教室室内外PM2.5的质量浓度,给人们在雾霾和非雾霾天气下如何改善室内空气质量提供帮助,以避免学生长时间暴露在室内PM2.5污染的环境中.
关键词:    室内外空气质量    PM2.5质量浓度    污染水平    广州    雾霾   
Characteristic of Indoor and Outdoor PM2.5 Pollution in Classrooms in Guangzhou
LEI Jieni1, ZHUANG Xi2, REN Mingzhong2, SHI Xiaoxia2, YU Lehuan4, CAI Zongwei1,3, ZHANG Manwen2
1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China;
2. South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou, 510655, China;
3. State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, 999077, China;
4. School of Biology and Food Engineering, Guangdong University of Education, Guangzhou, 510303, China
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate indoor and outdoor PM2.5 by simultaneously monitoring 16 classrooms in 4 schools in different districts of Guangzhou. The results showed that the average value and standard deviation of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were 65±15 μg·m-3 and 75±24 μg·m-3,respectively.The four schools showed different levels of PM2.5 pollution due to the different geographical locations, external environment and indoor sanitation conditions. The schools with many human activities have higher concentrations of PM2.5 in the daytime than in the evening. Ventilation mode, window opening and closing had significant impacts on the indoor and outdoor PM2.5. The classrooms with air-conditioned mechanical ventilation effectively reduced the infiltration of external PM2.5, while indoor PM2.5 in the classrooms with open windows were mainly affected by outdoor environment. In the case of closed windows, better palisade structure and higher window air tightness avoided PM2.5 pollution more effectively than the one with lower sealed window. The indoor PM2.5 concentration as well as the unitary linear correlation coefficient r2 of indoor and outdoor were obviously increased on the haze days. The investigation of the distribution of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 in different areas might be helpful for improving the indoor air quality in haze or normal weather, and for avoiding long-time exposure to the indoor PM2.5 pollution by the students.
Key words:    indoor and outdoor air quality    PM2.5 mass concentration    pollution levels    Guangzhou    the haze day   
收稿日期: 2017-11-28
基金项目: 环保公益性科研专项(201409080,201509063)和国家自然科学基金(91543202,41603072)资助.
蔡宗苇,Tel:852-34117070,E-mail:zwcai@hkbu.edu.hk;张漫雯,Tel:13826040834,E-mail:zhangmanwen@scies.org
相关功能
PDF(3145KB) Free
打印本文
加入收藏夹
把本文推荐给朋友
作者相关文章
雷杰妮  在本刊中的所有文章
庄僖  在本刊中的所有文章
任明忠  在本刊中的所有文章
石小霞  在本刊中的所有文章
余乐洹  在本刊中的所有文章
蔡宗苇  在本刊中的所有文章
张漫雯  在本刊中的所有文章

参考文献:
[1] 杨森源.结核防治宣传模式对健康教育效果影响的调查[J].实用预防医学,2011,18(4):761-762. YANG S Y. Research on the effect of mode of control and publicity the tuberculosis on health education[J].Practical Preventive Medicine, 2011,18(4):761-762(in Chinese).
[2] 张俊美.雾霾天气条件下PM2.5化学特征及室内外关系[D].济南:山东大学,2015:1-33. ZHANG J M. Chemical characteristics and relationship of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 during Haze-Fog Episodes[D].Jinan:Shang Dong University, 2015:1-33(in Chinese).
[3] 冯茜丹,党志,黄伟林.广州市秋季PM2.5中重金属的污染水平与化学形态分析[J].环境科学,2008,29(3):569-575. FENG Q D, DANG Z, HUANG W L. Pollution level and chemical speciation of heavy metals in PM2.5 during autumn in Guangzhou City[J].Environmental Science,2008,29(3):569-575(in Chinese).
[4] 朱红霞,赵淑莉,阚海东.2013年我国典型城市大气污染物浓度分布特征[J].环境科学与技术,2015,38(6):227-233. ZHU H X, ZHAO S L, KAN H D. Distribution characteristics of main atmospheric pollutants concentration in Chinese Typical Cities in 2013[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2015,38(6):227-233(in Chinese).
[5] TAENKHUMK. An evaluation of biogenic components of indoor and outdoor particulate matter and indoor settled dust in homes in Baltimore,Maryland[D]. Maryland:Johns Hopkins Unviersity,2009:2-6.
[6] 张杰峰,白志鹏,丁潇,等.空气颗粒物室内外关系研究进展[J].环境与健康杂志,2010,27(8):737-741. ZHANG J F, BAI Z P, DING X, et al. Indoor-outdoor relationship for airborne particulate matter of outdoor origin in exposure assessment:A review of recent studies[J]. J Environ Health,2010,27(8):737-741(in Chinese).
[7] 张振江,赵若杰,曹文文,等.天津市可吸入颗粒物及元素室内外相关性[J].中国环境科学,2013,33(2):357-364. ZHANG Z J, ZAHO R J, CAO W W, et al. Residential indoor-outdoor relationships of PM10 and elements in Tianjin[J].China Environmental Science, 2013,33(2):357-364(in Chinese).
[8] PIÑON J C. Analysis of indoor and outdoor particulate matter at various residences in the EL PASO Region[D]. Ecuador:The University of Texas,2011:1-4.
[9] JENKINS P L, PHILLIPS T J, MULBERG E J. Activity patterns of Californians:Use of and proximity to indoor pollutant sources[J]. Atmospheric Environment,1992,26A(12):2141-2148.
[10] BOZLAKER A, PECCIA J, CHELLAM S. Indoor/outdoor relationships and anthropogenic elemental signatures in airborne PM2.5 at a high school:Impacts of petroleum refining emissions on lanthanoid enrichment[J]. Environmental Science and Technology,2016,51(9):4851-4859.
[11] 石晶金,袁东,赵卓慧.我国住宅室内PM2.5来源及浓度的影响因素研究进展[J].环境与健康杂志,2015,32(9):825-829. SHI J J, YUAN D, ZHAO Z H. Residential indoor PM2.5 sources, concentration and influencing factors in China[J].J Environmental and Health,2015,32(9):825-829(in Chinese).
[12] GELLER M, CHANGA M, SIOUTASA C, et al. Indoor/outdoor relationshipand chemical composition of fine and coarse particles in the southern California deserts[J].Atmospheric Environment, 2002,36(6):1099-1110.
[13] 孙在,陈秋方,蔡志良,等.超细颗粒物通过建筑狭缝的传输特性[J].环境科学,2015,36(4):1227-1233. SUN Z, CHEN Q F, CAI Z L, et al. Characteristic of ultrafine particles transferring through building envelopes[J]. Environmental Science, 2015,36(4):1227-1233(in Chinese).
[14] 柳艳静,张丽娜,刘铁.北京市房山地区室内外空气PM2.5污染水平及其相关性[J].职业与健康,2015,31(20):2831-2833. LIU Y J, ZHANG L N, LIU T. Pollution levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and its correlation in Fangshan district of Beijing[J]. Occupation and Health, 2015,31(20):2831-2833(in Chinese).
[15] FROMME H, DIEMER J, DIETRICH S, et al. Chemical and morphological properties of particulate matter(PM10, PM2.5) in school classrooms and outdoor air[J].Atmospheric Environment, 2008,42:6597-6605.
[16] STRANGER M, POTGIETER-VERMAAK S S, et al. Comparative overview of indoor air quality in Antwerp, Belgium[J]. Environmental International,2007,33:789-797.
[17] 林宗伟,于彦杰,吴根容,等.广州市春季小学教学环境细颗粒物对学生呼吸系统影响的研究[J].实用预防医学,2014,21(3):281-284. LIN Z W, YU Y J, WU G R, et al. Impact of PM2.5 in teaching environment during spring on pupils' respiratory health in Guangzhou City[J].Practice Previous Medicine, 2014,21(3):281-284(in Chinese).
[18] 国家环境保护部. GB/T 18883-2002,室内空气质量标准[S]. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. GB/T 18883-2002, Indoor air quality standard[S](in Chinese).
[19] 国家环境保护部. GB 3095-2012,环境空气质量标准[S]. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. GB 3095-2012, Ambient air quality standards[S] (in Chinese).
[20] MONTOYA T. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations (PM10,PM10-2.5,and PM2.5) at high-altitude school and residential micro-environments in Quito, Ecuador[D]. Ecuador:The University of Texas at El Paso,2014:49-165.
[21] FROMME H, DIEMER J, DIETRICH S, et al. Chemical and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) in school classrooms and outdoor air[J]. Atmospheric Environment,2008,42(27):6597-6605.
[22] 杜峰.室内外地面清扫对大气颗粒物的影响研究[D].马鞍山:安徽工业大学,2011:30-48. DU F. A study of the influences of sweeping on the concentration of particulate matter in the indoor and outdoor air[D].Ma'anshan:Anhui University of Technology, 2011:30-48(in Chinese).
[23] 周刘轲.基于集中式空调系统空气过滤器净化PM2.5的试验研究[D].上海:东华大学,2015:18-26. ZHOU L K. Experimental study on the purification of PM2.5 by air filter based on centralized air conditioning system[D].Shanghai:Donghua University, 2015:18-26(in Chinese).
[24] 陈慧娟,刘君峰,张静玉,等.广州市PM2.5和PM1.0质量浓度变化特征[J].环境科学与技术,2008,10(31):87-91. CHEN H J, LIU J F, ZHANG J Y, et al. Characteristics of mass concentration variations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 at Guangzhou[J].Environmental Science & Technology, 2008,10(31):87-91(in Chinese).
[25] ZHOU Z H, LIU Y R,YUAN J J, et al. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in residential buildings during a severely polluted winter:A case study in Tianjin, China[J]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,2016,64:372-381.
[26] SANGIORGI G, FERRERO L, FERRINI B, et al. Indoor airborne particle sources and semi-volatile partitioning effect of outdoor fine PM in offices[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2013,65:205-214.
[27] ZHU Y, YANG L, MENG C, et al. Indoor/outdoor relationships and diurnal/nocturnal variations in water-soluble ion and PAH concentrations in the atmospheric PM2.5 of a business office area in Jinan, a heavily polluted city in China[J]. Atmospheric Research, 2015,153:276-285.
[28] WALLACEL. Indoor particles:A review[J]. Air and Waste Management Association,1996,46:98-126.
[29] SAARNAT J A, Brown K W, Schwartz J, et al. Ambient gas concentrations and personal particulate matter exposures[J]. Epidemiology, 2005,16(3):385-395.
[30] CHEN C, ZHAO B. Review of relationship between indoor and outdoor particles:I/O ratio, infiltration factor and penetration factor[J.]Atmospheric Environment,2011,45:275-288.
[31] MORAWSKA L, HE C R, HITCHINS J, et al. The relationship between indoor and outdoor airborne particles in the residential environment[J]. Atmospheric Environment,2001,35:3463-3473.
[32] 刘庆.自然通风下门窗开启对室内环境的影响研究[D].重庆:重庆大学,2014,12-14. LIU Q. Researchof indoor environment affected by opening door and windowinthe condition of natural ventilation[D].Chongqing:Chongqing University,2014,12-14(in Chinese).
[33] 韩燕,徐虹,毕晓辉,等.降水对颗粒物的冲刷作用及其对雨水化学的影燕[J].中国环境科学,2013,33(2):193-200. HAN Y, XU H, BI X H, et al. Changes of particulate matters during rain process and influence of that on chemical composition of precipitation in Hangzhou, China[J].China Environmental Science, 2013,33(2):193-200(in Chinese).
[34] 文远高.室内外空气污染物相关性研究[D].上海:上海交通大学,2008:42-50. WEN Y G. Correlation between outdoor and indoor air pollutants[J].Shanghai:Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2008:42-50(in Chinese).
[35] 中国气象局.QX/T113-2010,霾的观测和预报等级[S].北京:气象出版社,2010. China Meteorological Administration. QX/T113-2010, Observe and forecast the class of haze[S].Beijing:China Meteorological Press,2010(in Chinese).
[36] 陈超,王平,陈紫光,等.不同结构型式建筑外窗缝隙通风对建筑室内细颗粒物(PM2.5)浓度的影响[J].北京工业大学学报,2016,42(4):602-603. CHEN C, WANG P, CHEN Z G, et al.Impact of different structure characteristics of external windows on indoor PM2.5 concentrations under infiltration ventilating[J].Journal of Beijing University of Technology, 2016,42(4):602-603(in Chinese).
[37] 熊志明.大气悬浮颗粒物对室内空气品质影响的预测模拟研究[D].长沙:湖南大学,2004:47-51. XING Z M. Modeling indoor particulate concentrations of outdoor origin[D].Changsha:Hunan University, 2004:47-51(in Chinese).
[38] 阚海东,陈仁杰.PM2.5对人体危害有多大[J].中国经济报告,2015(4):114-116. KAN H D, CHEN R J. How harmful PM2.5 is to the human body[J].China Policy Review, 2015(4):114-116(in Chinese).
[39] ALMEIDA A M, CANHA N, SILVA A, et al. Children exposure to atmospheric particles in indoor of Lisbon primary schools[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2011,45:7594-7599.
[40] 童建.健康危险度的暴露评价进展[J].毒理学杂志,2007,21(5):353-355. TONG J. Progress in the assessment of health risks[J].Journal of Toxicology,2007,21(5):353-355(in Chinese).
[41] SILVA R A. Climate change, air quality and human health:Quantifying the global mortality impacts of present and future ozone and PM2.5 Ambient air pollution[D].Chapel Hill:University of North Carolina,2015.