引用本文:
刘盈盈, 殷宝辉, 王静, 王歆华, 侯鲁健, 马银红, 王健, 赵雪艳, 姜艳. 济南冬季大气重污染过程颗粒物组分变化特征[J]. 环境化学, 2018, 37(12): 2749-2757
LIU Yingying, YIN Baohui, WANG Jing, WANG Xinhua, HOU Lujian, MA Yinhong, WANG Jian, ZHAO Xueyan, JIANG Yan. Characteristics of airborne particles compositions during winter heavy pollution days in Ji'nan[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2018, 37(12): 2749-2757

济南冬季大气重污染过程颗粒物组分变化特征
刘盈盈1, 殷宝辉1, 王静1, 王歆华1, 侯鲁健2, 马银红1, 王健1, 赵雪艳1, 姜艳1
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京, 100012;
2. 济南市环境保护科学研究院, 济南, 250101
摘要:
为研究济南市冬季大气重污染过程的颗粒物化学组分特征,于2017年11月15日-12月30日在市监测站及跑马岭清洁对照点同步采集PM10和PM2.5,并对其质量浓度、水溶性离子及碳组分进行分析,结果表明重污染过程中PM2.5/PM10质量浓度比均超过0.6.NO3-(硝酸盐)、SO42-(硫酸盐)、NH4+(铵盐)、OC(有机碳)浓度及百分占比与颗粒物浓度同步增加,其中NO3-、SO42-、NH4+、OC的浓度增加倍数远大于PM2.5的浓度增加,重污染日市监测站NO3-、SO42-、NH4+、OC质量浓度分别是非污染日的5.1倍、8.8倍、8.3倍、7.0倍,跑马岭重污染日NO3-、SO42-、NH4+、OC质量浓度分别是非污染日的3.0倍、3.9倍、3.7倍、4.6倍;且SO42-和NH4+质量百分占比涨幅比NO3-的大,说明重污染天气下SO42-和NH4+对PM2.5浓度增加的贡献更大.通过经验公式计算得出市监测站和跑马岭SOC质量浓度分别占OC的82.4%和92.3%,说明重污染期间SOC是OC主要组成部分.二次无机离子和二次有机碳是导致重污染的主因,表明在冬季重污染过程中,大气化学反应非常重要,这可能与空气静稳和湿度较大的气象条件、前体物的大量积累、液相非均相化学过程的加强紧密相关.重污染天气下需要重视NO2对SO2液相催化氧化作用,严格控制NO2的排放.
关键词:    济南    重污染    PM2.5    SO42-    NO2   
Characteristics of airborne particles compositions during winter heavy pollution days in Ji'nan
LIU Yingying1, YIN Baohui1, WANG Jing1, WANG Xinhua1, HOU Lujian2, MA Yinhong1, WANG Jian1, ZHAO Xueyan1, JIANG Yan1
1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China;
2. Jinan Institute of Environmental Protection Science, Ji'nan, 250101, China
Abstract:
To study the chemical composition characteristics of atmospheric particulates during a air pollution episode in Ji'nan in winter, PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at two sites(Shizhan and Paomaling which is the background site) from November 15th to December 30th in 2017. Chemical composition (i.e., water soluble ions and carbonaceous species)of PM10 and PM2.5 in heavy pollution days and non-pollution days were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration ratios of PM2.5/PM10 exceeded 0.6 in heavy pollution days. This indicated that heavy pollution was caused by fine particulate.The concentrations and percentages of NO3-、SO42-,NH4+ and OC increased synchronously with the concentration of particulate matter. The concentrations of NO3-、SO42-、NH4+ and OC in heavy pollution days were 5.1 times, 8.8 times, 8.3 times and 7.0 times of non-pollution days in Shizhan, respectively. The concentrations of those chemical species in heavy polluted days were 3.0, 3.9, 3.7and 4.6 times of the polluted days respectively in Paomaling. It indicated that the secondary particles were the main cause of heavy pollution. Moreover, the percentage of SO42- and NH4+ in PM2.5 increased more than that of NO3-, indicating that SO42- and NH4+ contributed more to the increasing of PM2.5 concentration in heavy pollution period According to estimation, the mass of SOC in Shizhan stations and Paomaling accounted for 82.4% and 92.3% of OC, respectively, indicating that SOC was the main component of OC during heavy pollution days. It was concluded that the PM2.5 pollution episode in winter was mainly caused by formation of secondary inorganic particles and SOC. It may be closely related to the accumulation of precursors, enhancement of heterogeneous process and changes of physical conditions such as humidity. The high humidity provided favorite liquid phase reaction conditions for NOx and SO2 transformation toward particulate phase and accelerated the generation of nitrate and sulfate. The degree of heavy pollution can be effectively reduced by controlling the emission reduction of NO2 and SO2. Especially, it is necessary to control NO2 emissions which can catalytically oxidize SO2.
Key words:    Ji'nan    air pollution episode    PM2.5    SO42-    NO2   
收稿日期: 2018-07-26
基金项目: 总理基金,山东省科技发展计划项目(2014GSF117038)和济南市科技计划项目(201509001-2)资助.
姜艳,Tel:13311217529,E-mail:526665649@qq.com
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