引用本文:
张婷婷, 马文林, 亓学奎, 曲晶明, 贾凯, 刘艳菊. 北京城区PM2.5有机碳和元素碳的污染特征及来源分析[J]. 环境化学, 2018, 37(12): 2758-2766
ZHANG Tingting, MA Wenlin, QI Xuekui, QU Jingming, JIA Kai, LIU Yanju. Characteristics and sources of organic carbon and element carbon in PM2.5 in the urban areas of Beijing[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2018, 37(12): 2758-2766

北京城区PM2.5有机碳和元素碳的污染特征及来源分析
张婷婷1,2, 马文林1, 亓学奎2, 曲晶明2, 贾凯2, 刘艳菊3
1. 北京建筑大学, 北京, 100044;
2. 北京市理化分析测试中心, 北京, 100089;
3. 北京麋鹿生态实验中心, 北京, 100076
摘要:
为研究北京城区PM2.5中有机碳(OC)和元素碳(EC)的浓度水平、季节变化特征与主要来源,于2015年4月至2016年3月在北京西三环交通带附近采集4个季节PM2.5有效样品95组,利用热光反射法测定了PM2.5中OC和EC的质量浓度,并对OC/EC值、OC与EC相关性、二次有机碳(SOC)等特征及污染来源进行了分析.结果表明,采样期间PM2.5平均质量浓度为(109.9±7.99)μg·m-3.PM2.5中OC的年平均质量浓度为(13.49±4.32)μg·m-3,占PM2.5的13.13%;EC的年平均质量浓度为(5.41±1.83)μg·m-3,占PM2.5的5.2%.OC和EC平均浓度及OC和EC在PM2.5中所占比例的季节变化特征均为冬季最高,秋季大于春季,夏季最低.4个季节PM2.5中OC/EC比值均大于2.0,表明各季节存在二次有机碳(SOC)的生成,采用OC/EC最小比值法对SOC含量进行了估算,SOC年平均浓度为(6.88±1.10)μg·m-3,占OC含量的50.86%,冬秋季节的SOC浓度水平高于春夏季节.夏季SOC对OC的贡献率为62.22%,高于其他季节.相关性分析表明,OC与EC的相关性在春季(R2=0.9046)和秋季(R2=0.8886)高于夏季(R2=0.4472)和冬季(R2=0.6018),表明春秋两季OC与EC来源相似且相对简单.进一步对PM2.5中8个碳组分质量浓度进行分析显示,北京城区大气碳质气溶胶主要来自汽油车排放和燃煤.
关键词:    PM2.5    有机碳    元素碳    二次有机碳    季节特征   
Characteristics and sources of organic carbon and element carbon in PM2.5 in the urban areas of Beijing
ZHANG Tingting1,2, MA Wenlin1, QI Xuekui2, QU Jingming2, JIA Kai2, LIU Yanju3
1. Beijing University Of Civil Engineering And Architecture, Beijing, 100044, China;
2. Beijing Center For Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing, 100089, China;
3. Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center, Beijing, 100076, China
Abstract:
To investigate the concentration,seasoned characteristics and main sources of organic carbon (OC) and element carbon (EC) in PM2.5 in Beijing urban areas, a total of 95 PM2.5 sample were collected seasonally in the traffic belt of West Third Ring of Beijing from April 2015 to March 2016. OC and EC were analyzed by thermal optical reflection (TOR),and the characteristics including OC/EC ratios,correlations between OC and EC,secondary organic carbon (SOC) and the source of OC and EC were analyzed in detail. Results showed that the average concentration of PM2.5 was (109.9±7.99) μg·m-3. The average concentrations of OC and EC were (13.49±4.32),(5.41±1.83) μg·m-3,accounting for 13.13% and 5.2% of PM2.5,respectively. The seasonal characteristics of the average concentration and proportion of OC and EC in PM2.5 were ranked by the order of winter > autumn > spring > summer. The ratios of OC/EC in the four seasons were all larger than 2.0,which indicated that the SOC were formed. The minimum OC/EC ratio method was used to estimate the SOC formation. The annual average concentration of SOC was (6.88±1.10) μg·m-3,accounting for 50.86% of OC. The concentrations of SOC during winter and autumn were higher than that in spring and summer. The highest contribution of SOC to OC occurred as 62.22% in summer. The correlation analysis showed that OC and EC were more correlated in spring (R2=0.9046) and autumn (R2=0.8886) than in summer (R2=0.4472) and winter (R2=0.6018),indicating that the emission sources were similar and relatively simple in spring and autumn. By analyzing the mass concentration of eight carbon components in PM2.5,gasoline vehicle emission and coal burning were indicated to be the major sources of atmospheric carbon aerosols in urban Beijing.
Key words:    PM2.5    organic carbon    element carbon    secondary organic carbon    seasonal characteristics   
收稿日期: 2018-05-17
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(41475133)资助.
刘艳菊,Tel:13671287860,E-mail:liuyanju@hotmail.com
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