引用本文:
开晓莉, 张维江, 邱小琮, 褚金镝, 张宇正. 清水河污染物对儿童所致健康风险评估[J]. 环境化学, 2018, 37(12): 2809-2819
KAI Xiaoli, ZHANG Weijiang, QIU Xiaocong, CHU Jindi, ZHANG Yuzheng. Health risk evaluation of children caused by water pollutants in Qingshui River[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2018, 37(12): 2809-2819

清水河污染物对儿童所致健康风险评估
开晓莉1,2, 张维江1, 邱小琮3, 褚金镝1, 张宇正1
1. 宁夏大学土木与水利工程学院, 银川, 750021;
2. 安徽理工大学地球与环境学院, 淮南, 232001;
3. 宁夏大学生命科学学院, 银川, 750021
摘要:
为研究黄河宁夏段一级支流(清水河)汛期水环境污染物对儿童健康影响,2012-2016年5月在清水河7个典型断面进行了水样采集和水质检测,综合考虑各种饮水、皮肤接触途径,对流域上游周边儿童的饮水、饮食及涉水行为进行抽样问卷调查和实际测量,研究获得当地儿童夏季饮水、皮肤暴露参数,并对清水河水环境污染物通过各种饮水、皮肤接触途径对儿童所致健康风险进行了研究.结果表明,儿童饮水、皮肤暴露参数受区域、性别、城乡、饮食、生活习惯等影响而使不同儿童群体所面临的水环境健康风险存在明显的差异性;在同样的污染背景下,女童面临的健康风险高于男童面临的健康风险,城市女童、农村男童所面临的健康风险分别高于农村女童和城市男童面临的健康风险,皮肤暴露风险高于饮水暴露风险,头部、脸及手是儿童健康风险较高的身体部位;清水河水环境化学污染物对儿童所致健康总风险的数量级在10-5-10-4 a-1之间,且总体上从源头到黄河入河口在逐渐增大,其中在韩府湾、王团及泉眼山超过1×10-4a-1,为重点污染控制断面,整个流域2012-2016年水环境质量总体不太稳定.
关键词:    汛期    清水河    水环境健康风险    暴露参数    儿童   
Health risk evaluation of children caused by water pollutants in Qingshui River
KAI Xiaoli1,2, ZHANG Weijiang1, QIU Xiaocong3, CHU Jindi1, ZHANG Yuzheng1
1. School of Civil Engineering and Water Conservancy, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 750021, China;
2. Earth and Environmental College, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, 232001, China;
3. School of Life Science, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 750021, China
Abstract:
In order to investigate the impact of water pollutants on children's health in the first-class tributary of Ningxia section of the Yellow River (Qingshui River) in the flood season, water samples were collected and water quality was detected in seven typical sections of Qingshui River in May of every year from 2012 to 2016. Considering all possible exposure ways through drinking water and dermal contact, sampling questionnaire survey and actual measurement of drinking water, diet and water-related activities of children in the upper reaches of the river basin were carried out. The drinking water-related exposure factors and dermal exposure factors of local children in the summer were obtained. The risk to children's health caused by the pollutants in water environment of Qingshui River was studied through various ways of drinking water and dermal contact. The results show that:Children's drinking water-related exposure and dermal exposure were affected by a serious of factors such as location, gender, urban and rural areas, diet, living habits and so on, which make the risk of water environment health of different groups of children obviously different; In the same context of pollution, girls face higher health risks than boys, and urban girls and rural boys face higher health risks than rural girls and urban boys respectively. The risk of dermal exposure is higher than that of drinking water. Head, face and hands are the body parts with higher risk for children's health. The magnitude of the total environmental health risk to children caused by chemical pollutants in the water environment of Qingshui River is between 10-5-10-4a-1. In general, from the source to the estuary of the Yellow River, it is gradually increased, among which more than 1×10-4a-1 in Hanfuwan, Wangtuan and Quanyanshan, which are the key pollution control sections. Overall water environmental quality in the whole basin is not stable in 2012-2016.
Key words:    flood season    Qingshui River    water environment health risk    exposure factors    children   
收稿日期: 2018-06-04
基金项目: 宁夏回族自治区重点研发计划(科技惠民)项目(2016KJHM34)和宁夏大学"西部一流"重大创新项目(ZKZD201700)资助.
张维江,Tel:13909588121,E-mail:zwjiang@263.net
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