Environmental Chemistry

ISSN 0254-6108

CN 11-1844/X

Vol. 38 No. 5
May  2019
Article Contents

Citation:

Investigation on caffeine consumption in Liaoning Province using sewage epidemiology

  • Received Date: 2018-06-18
    Fund Project:

    Supported by the Central University Basic Research Business (3132019149).

  • Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system derived from tea and coffee drinks. Investigating on its consumption is important for monitoring the population health and the size of the caffeine consumer market. In this study, a sewerage epidemiology method was used to investigate caffeine consumption in seven major cities in Liaoning Province. The mean concentration of caffeine in influent wastewater samples was determined to be 2.77±1.55 μg·L-1 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The per capita consumption of caffeine in Liaoning Province was estimated to be 39.5 mg·d-1 based on the combined data of the influent flow rate of the wastewater treatment plant, the human metabolic data of caffeine, and the served population of the wastewater treatment plant. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the consumption, and the results showed that the per capita caffeine consumption of urban residents in Liaoning Province was 41.2 mg·d-1(95% CI:22.9-74.4 mg·d-1). In 2017, the urban population of Liaoning Province was calculated to be 29.5 million. The total caffeine consumption of urban residents in Liaoning Province was 1210 kg·d-1(95% CI:680-2190 kg·d-1). Sensitivity analysis shows that caffeine's human metabolic factor is the parameter that contributes most to the uncertainty in the process of back-calculation. This study provides a rapid and timely method for the investigation of caffeine consumption.
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  • [1] DAUGHTON C G. Illicit drugs in municipal sewage:Proposed new non-intrusive tool to heighten public awareness of societal use of illicit/abused drugs and their potential for ecological consequences[J]. Research Gate.2001:348-364.
    [2] ZUCCATO E, CHIABRANDO C, CASTIGLIONI S, et al. Cocaine in surface waters:A new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse[J]. Environmental Health, 2005, 4(1):14-18.
    [3] HUERTA-FONTELA M, GALCERAN M T, MARTIN-ALONSO J, et al. Occurrence of psychoactive stimulatory drugs in wastewaters in north-eastern Spain[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2008, 397(1):31-40.
    [4] BAKER D R, BARRON L, KASPRZYK-HORDERN B. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part A:Chemical analysis and drug use estimates[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2014, 487(100):629-641.
    [5] CASTIGLIONI S, SENTA I, BORSOTTI A, et al. A novel approach for monitoring tobacco use in local communities by wastewater analysis[J]. Tobacco Control, 2015, 24(1):38-42.
    [6] BAZLOMBA J A, SALVATORE S, GRACIALOR E, et al. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities[J]. Bmc Public Health, 2016, 16(1):1035-1040.
    [7] GAO J, O'BRIEN J, DU P, et al. Measuring selected PPCPs in wastewater to estimate the population in different cities in China[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2016, 568:164-170.
    [8] 王德高.污水流行病学[M].北京:科学出版社,2018. WANG D G. Sewage Epidemiology[M].Beijing:Sceince Press,2018(in Chinese).
    [9] CASTIGLIONI S, SENTA I, BORSOTTI A, et al. A novel approach for monitoring tobacco use in local communities by wastewater analysis[J]. Tobacco Control, 2014, 24(1):38-42.
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Investigation on caffeine consumption in Liaoning Province using sewage epidemiology

  • Environmental Science and Engineering of Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, 116000, China
Fund Project:  Supported by the Central University Basic Research Business (3132019149).

Abstract: Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system derived from tea and coffee drinks. Investigating on its consumption is important for monitoring the population health and the size of the caffeine consumer market. In this study, a sewerage epidemiology method was used to investigate caffeine consumption in seven major cities in Liaoning Province. The mean concentration of caffeine in influent wastewater samples was determined to be 2.77±1.55 μg·L-1 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The per capita consumption of caffeine in Liaoning Province was estimated to be 39.5 mg·d-1 based on the combined data of the influent flow rate of the wastewater treatment plant, the human metabolic data of caffeine, and the served population of the wastewater treatment plant. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the consumption, and the results showed that the per capita caffeine consumption of urban residents in Liaoning Province was 41.2 mg·d-1(95% CI:22.9-74.4 mg·d-1). In 2017, the urban population of Liaoning Province was calculated to be 29.5 million. The total caffeine consumption of urban residents in Liaoning Province was 1210 kg·d-1(95% CI:680-2190 kg·d-1). Sensitivity analysis shows that caffeine's human metabolic factor is the parameter that contributes most to the uncertainty in the process of back-calculation. This study provides a rapid and timely method for the investigation of caffeine consumption.

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